The Arabic alphabet or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language. Because letters usually stand for consonants, Arabic alphabet is classified as an abjad (a type of writing system where each symbol always or usually stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel).
The Arabic alphabet is the second most widely used alphabet in the world, following the Latin alphabet. Arabic alphabet envolved from the Nabataean Aramaic script. The Aramaic language has fewer consonants than Arabic, so during the 7th century new letters were created in Arabic alphabet by adding dots to existing letters in order to avoid ambiguities.
Arabic words and sentences are written and beign read from right to left. The Arabic alphabet has 28 letters. The Arabic alphabet has no upper or lower case letters.
Words written in Arabic alphabet are in horizontal lines from right to left, but the numerals are written from left to right. Arabic is a cursive-only script (cannot be written with unconnected, separated Arabic letters).
The Arabic alphabet particularly lends itself to artistic expression because of the flexibility of its letter shapes. 22 letters in Arabic alphabet has four configurations, and the form used depends on where the letter falls within a word. Letters from Arabic alphabet are in a word connected to each other, and the strokes linking letters can be made longer or shorter depending on the needs of the composition. These characteristics from the letters in Arabic alphabet allow for the creative play, flexibility and variation often seen in Arabic calligraphy compositions.
Arabic alphabet does not have letter P, V and C or their sounds in Arabic spoken words.
If you are able to read the Arabic alphabet, you should be able to read Arabic calligraphy. Arabic letters in Arabic alphabet are not only beautiful, but also when they are arranged into words, they communicate meaning. All it takes is a little time and practice.
There are two main types of spoken and written Arabic language, written in Arabic alphabet of course:
Classical Arabic - the language of the Qur'an and classical literature. It differs from Modern Standard Arabic mainly in style and vocabulary, some of which is archaic.
Modern Standard Arabic - the universal language of the Arabic-speaking world which is understood by all Arabic speakers. It is the language of the vast majority of written material and of formal TV shows, lectures, etc.